Published on 2021-06-08 by
Indira Rivero Reyes
In 2001, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) declared the Alejandro de Humboldt National Park a World Heritage Site. Named after the German scientist considered the second discoverer of Cuba, the park occupies territories in the provinces of Holguín and Guantánamo, and covers an area of 70,680 hectares, of which 2,250 correspond to territorial waters and 68,430 to land.
Singular natural characteristics distinguish the region, which has the highest indexes of cloudiness and rainfall in the country, with records ranging between 2 400 and 4 000 millimeters of rainfall per year. Rich for its pristine beaches and mountain rainforests, Alejandro de Humboldt Park is also home to Cuba's largest hydrographic network and the largest reservoir of pure water in the Caribbean. According to the renowned Cuban scientist Antonio Núñez Jiménez, this area has the most crystalline water rivers in the world.
Cuban specialists assure that the biodiversity values, the high endemism of the flora and fauna and the continuous description of new species or other very rare ones that inhabit the region are impressive. In this area alone, full of unique and unrepeatable landscapes, you can find more than 1,500 species of Cuban flora and endangered animals such as the almiquí or the Caguarero hawk.
Its main economic activities are forestry, coffee, coconut and cacao cultivation, which are carried out in a controlled manner and in harmony with nature, so as not to have a negative impact on the region's rich ecosystem. This area of eastern Cuba arouses great interest among travelers, so routes and excursions have been created that allow visitors to appreciate the unique environment in the company of specialized guides.
Among the main attractions of the Park are the Cabeza de Jaguaní River with several waterfalls and cascades; the Loma del Mulo viewpoint; El Toldo, a peak and plateau that constitute the highest heights of the Moa-Baracoa massif; the Alto de Iberia plateau, with unique lagoons of its kind in Cuba and the world; Taco Bay, habitat of the manatee (an endangered aquatic mammal) and the Farallones de Moa, an area with a developed fluvial cavern system, whose Gran Caverna is a National Monument. This park is one of the most complete opportunities that specialists and nature tourism enthusiasts can enjoy in the Greater Antilles.